English grammar image

Das Present Perfect

Das Present Perfect verwendest du um auszudrücken, dass etwas vor kurzem oder zu einem unbestimmten Zeitpunkt in der Vergangenheit passiert ist. Eine genauere Zeitangabe interessiert dich dabei nicht.

Bildung

Subjekt + have/has + Past Participle (= 3. Form des Verbes)


Das Past Participle regelmäßiger Verben bildest du mit der Endung -ed (wie das Past Simple):

work - worked
finish - finished
play - played

Das Past Participle unregelmäßiger Verben muss man lernen

be - been
write - written
know - known

Das Past Participle unregelmäßiger Verben findest du in der dritten Spalte der Tabelle der unregelmäßigen Verben in deinem Englischbuch oder hier. Online Übungen: Test 1, Test 2, Test 3, Test 4, Test 5.

Aussagen (Statements)

Alle Formen + Kurzformen

I have been to London - I've been
you have been - you've been
he has been - he's been
she has been - she's been
it has been - it's been
we have been - we've been
you have been - you've been
they have been - they've been

I have played tennis - I've played
you have played - you've played
he has played - he's played
she has played - she's played
it has played - it's played
we have played - we've played
you have played - you've played
they have played - they've played

Fragen (Questions)

"Ja" "Nein" Fragen 

Have I been to England?
Have you been to England?
Has he been to England?
Has she been to England?
Has it been to England?
Have we been to England?
Have you been to England?
Have they been to England?

Kurze Antworten

Yes, I have. No, I haven't.
Yes, you have. No, you haven't.
Yes, he has. No, he hasn't.
Yes, she has. No, she hasn't.
Yes, it has. No, it hasn't.
Yes, we have. No, we haven't.
Yes, you have. No, you haven't.
Yes, they have. No, they haven't.

W-Fragen

Fragewörter

What - Was
Where - Wo
When - Wann
Who - Wer
Why - Warum

Where have I been?
Where have you been?
Where has he been?
Where has she been?
Where has it been?
Where have we been?
Where have you been?
Where have they been?

Verneinungen (Negative Forms)

Verneinungen im Present Perfect Simple werden mit dem Wort "not" gebildet.
Beim Sprechen "have not" wird zu "haven't", und "has not" wird zu "hasn't".

I have not been - I haven't been
you have not been - you haven't been
he has not been - he hasn't been
she has not been - she hasn't been
it has not been - it hasn't been
we have not been - we haven't been
you have not been - you haven't been
they have not been - they haven't been

I have not played - I haven't played
you have not played - you haven't played
he has not played - he hasn't played
she has not played - she hasn't played
it has not played - it hasn't played
we have not played - we haven't played
you have not played - you haven't played
they have not played - they haven't played

Werwendung (Use)

Du verwendest das Present Perfect, um über Folgendes zu sprechen:

1 Persönliche Erfahrungen - mit "never", "ever".

I have never been to Paris. - Ich war nie in Paris.
Have you ever been to Greece? - Warst du schon einmal in Griechenland?
They've travelled around the USA. -  Sie haben die USA bereist.

 

2 Nachrichten, aktuelle Ereignisse.

Eine Handlung, die kürzlich stattgefunden hat - mit "just", "already".

I have just finished my homework. - Ich habe gerade meine Hausaufgaben beendet.

 

3 Wenn das Rezultat wichtig ist und nicht wann etwas passiert ist.

He has lost his key. He cannot open the door. - Er hat seinen Schlüssel verloren. Er kann die Tür nicht öffnen.

Wir sagen nicht:

He has lost his key yesterday . - Er hat seinen Schlüssel gestern verloren.

 

4 Wenn die Zeit noch nicht vorbei ist - mit "this week", "today", "this year".

I haven't had any tests this week. - Ich hatte keine Tests diese Woche.

 

5 Wenn du sagen möchtest, wie lange etwas gedauert hat. Auf Deutsch verwendest du die Gegenwart oder die Vergangenheit. Die Wörter "how long", "since", "for".

I've known my friend for 10 years.- Ich kenne meinen Freund seit 10 Jahren.
I've known my friend since primary school. - Ich kenne meinen Freund seit der Grundschule.
How long have you been at your grandmother's? - Wie lange warst du bei deiner Oma?

Wir sagen nicht:

I know my friend for 10 years. - Ich kenne meinen Freund seit 10 Jahren.

 

Signalwörtern

  • just - gerade jetzt
  • already - schon
  • never - nie
  • ever - je
  • not yet - noch nicht
  • always - immer
  • since/for - seit
  • so far - bis jetzt
  • before - bevor
  • recently - for kurzem
  • lately - kürzlich
  • today - heute
  • this week - diese Woche

Vielleicht möchtest du auch lernen

Der Unterschied zwischen das Present Perfect Simple und das Present Perfect Continuous. Klicke hier.

Der Unterschied zwischen das Present Perfect und das Simple Past. Klicke hier.

Übungen Online

Ü1. Present Perfect - Aussagen - Perfect English Grammar
Ü2. Present Perfect - Fragen - Perfect English Grammar
Ü3. Present Perfect - Verneinungen - Perfect English Grammar
Ü4. Aussagen, Fragen, Verneinungen (klicke on Practice) - Oxford Learners Dictionaries
Ü5. Aussagen, Fragen, Verneinungen - Perfect English Grammar
Ü6. Aussagen, Fragen, Verneinungen - Perfect English Grammar
Ü7. for/since (klicke on Practice) - Oxford Learners Dictionaries